The area of Bashkortostan Republic is 143,6 thousand square kilometers (0,8 percent of the whole area of Russian Federation). It covers the major part of the South Urals, the plains of the Bashkirian foothills of the Urals, adjoined to it and hill-and-plain belt of the Bashkirian Trans Urals. It borders on Perm and Sverdlovsk regions in the north; Chelyabinsk region - in the East; Orenburg region - in the south-east, the south and south-west; Tatarstan Republic - in the west; Udmurt Republic - in the north-west. Its territory spreads for 550 km from the north to the south and from west to east - for more than 430 km.
There are 4 million and 110 thousand people in this republic (2,8 percent of the Russian Federation population). The Republic takes the 7th place in terms of population among Regions and Republics of Russia, including Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Bashkortostan is an area of high density of population: there are 28,6 persons for one square km. 64,8 percent is the part of urban population and 35,2 percent - country people. There are 47,3 percent of men and 52,7 percent of women among the whole number of population. Bashkortostan is an international republic. More than 70 nationalities live in its territory. There are: Russians, Bashkirians, Tatars, Chuvashes, Maris, Ukrainians. Russian is the international communication language here.
State Authority Bodies
Bashkortostan Republic is a sovereign member of the Russian Federation. It is a part of the Russian Federation on voluntary and equal basis. The Republic state authorities are subdivided into legislative, executive and judicial ones. The State Assembly of Bashkortostan, the President of Bashkortostan Republic as well as the Cabinet of Bashkortostan Republic, local authorities in districts and towns of Baskortostan and the courts are the State power here.
Bashkortostan President is a leader of Bashkortostan Republic. He is a guarantor of citizen's rights and freedoms as well as Bashkortostan international agreements fullfilment. Also he protects the Republic independency, economical and Republic independency, economical and political interests of Bashkortostan. The President as a leader of Bashtostan is a higher authority who represents the republic in international relationships. The State Assembly of Bashkortostan Curultai is the higher representative and the only legislative body of Bashkortostan Republic. The State Assembly of Bashkortostan consists of two Chambers - Representative Chamber and Legislative Chamber. The State Assembly is elected for four years. The Cabinet of Bashkortostan Republic is the executive body in Bashkortostan.
The State Symbols
The State Symbols of Bashkortostan Republic are the State Flag, the National Anthem and the State Insignia.
The State Flag of Bashkortostan Republic
(affirmed on February 25, 1992)
In the center of a white strip there is a golden emblem-a circle and a kurai flower with seven petals in it. The correlation of the flag`s width and length is 1:2. Top, middle and bottom strips are 1/3 of flag width. (point 5 in Bashkortostan Republic legislation, chapter "The State Symbols of Bashkortostan Republic).
Bashkortostan republic state insignia
(affirmed on October 12, 1993)
It's a picture of Salavat Yulaev monument and the rays of rising sun as a background inside the circle framed with the national ornament. Kurai floscule, the ribbon of the same colors with the State flag of Bashkortostan Republic, Signed "Bashkortostan" in white is in the bottom.
The National Anthem of Bashkortostan
The musical work "The Republic" (composed by composer) Farit Idrisov was adopted as the National Anthem of Bashkortostan Republic.
Bashkortostan - is a republic in the south Urals and the foothills of the Urals , named after its native people - the Bashkirs. Russian (Slavonic) republic's name Bashkiria - was affirmed in the end of the 16th century.
From the second half of the 16th century till the beginning of the 19th century the Bashkirs occupied the territory from the left bank of the Volga in the South-West till the upper Tobol in the East, from the Syilva river in the north, all the left bank Volga including, till the middle Yaik in the South; i.e. it is in the Middle and the SouthUral, in foothills of the Urals, Volga-regions and Trans Urals included. The administrative and territorial settlement of Bashkiria was based on the territory of old Bashkirian tribes till the middle of the 19th century.
In the middle of the 16th century the Bashkirs took out Russian citizenship, according to the agreement with the tsar government. After its joining up with to Russia (the second half of the 16th century) the territory of Bashkiria was included into Kazan district; from 1668 it was reorganized into Ufa district. On October 16, 1917 Bashkiria territory of Orenburg, Ufa, Perm, Samara district was declared as an autonomous part of Russian Federation by Bashkirian district (central) shuro (council), elected in the first all-Bashkirian Kurultai (congress, July 1917) the Shuro decision was affirmed by the third all-Bashkirian Kurultai on December,8, 1917.
On March 23, 1919 Bashkirian Autonomous Republic was declared according to "The Decree of the Central Soviets and the Bashkirian Government Agreement on Bashkirian Soviet Autonomy". On may 19, 1920 the decree "About the State Settlement of the Bashkirian Soviet Autonomous Republic" was affirmed by the all-Russian Central Executive Committee and Commissars Council of the Russian Federation. In 1922 Ufa, Birsk Belebei district mainly were included into the Bashkirian Soviet Autonomous Republic.
On October 11, 1990 the Declaration of Sovereighty was adopted, which proved the republic's status as democratic and legal. And in February 1992 it was called Bashkortostan Republic.
On August 3, 1994 the treaty as follows was concluded between the Russian Federation and Bashkortostan Republic: "About the Separation and Mutual Delegation of authorities between the Russian Federation and Bashkortostan Republic State bodies".
Social and Economic Situation
Social and economic development of Bashkortostan is determined by:
- high-developed industrial sources and high-skilled specialists in factories and in science and research organizations;
- transport and geography republic benefits;
- nature and raw-materials capacity;
- soil and climate advantages for agricultural complex;
- demographic and labour sources usefulness satisfied completely for economic needs.
The economic situation in the republic is characterized by the positive tendencies development formed in the economic branches and the investments. It's observed, that some social and economic level indicators are developing. In 1999 the gross output increased by 6,2 percent in comparison with the same values in 1998; industrial production value - by 6,5 percent, during ten months in 2000 - by 8,9 percent in Bashkortostan. The investments activity in factories and organizations was also increased. The average month earning in 1999 was 1205,1 rubles. The number of unemployed was diminished by 21 percent and made 58,3 thousand persons.
Region Overall Production of Bashkortostan
|Total Gross Domestic
Product, mlrd. roubles
Bashkortostan Republic is one of the biggest industrial and export-oriented regions in the Russian Federation. The Republic's share of the whole Russia foreign trade turnover is nearly 2 per cent.
A great number of unique technologies for aircraft engineering, machine building, biology, solid structure physics are accumulated in the republic. It makes possible to produce high-quality and world-market competitive products. In Bashkortostan Republic the foreign trade turnover is nearly $2 mlrd. annually; 80 percent of it is export.
Bashkortostan cooperates in foreign trade field with more than 90 countries, keeping in close contact with East and West Europe countries, Arabian world, India, Turkey, Japan, USA.
The Bashkortostan multi-sectorial economic structure offers a large selection of goods to the world market. The plants and factories export products as follows: oil, oil products, polyethylene, polypropylene, soda, rubber, helicopters, autotip-lorries, aircraft-motors, oil-fields equipment, electric pumps, communication devices, machine-tools, optics, snow-vehicles, binoculars, medicines and others.
As for import machines, tools, mineral products, consumer goods prevail here.
International connections development as well as the republics integration into the world economic sphere are the tasks being solved by Bashkortostan Republic Government in succession. The international economic activity is based on Bashkortostan Republic Constitution and the conception of Bashkortostan social economy development until the year 2005. The Republics succesful advance to the world market and foreign trade development is guaranteed by legal foreign economic activity base which is created and is improved constantly. There are the following laws in the Republic: "About the Basis of Bashkortostan Republic Foreign Economic Activity ", "About the State Control of Bashkortostan Republic Foreign Trade activity". Annually dozens of foreign state delegations come to the Republic. Bashkortostan is the associated and legal member of the following international organizations:
- UNIDO (United Nations Organization for Industrial Development);
- UNESKO (United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture);
- TURKSOI (Organization for Joint Development of Turks Culture and Art);
- AER (Europe Regions Assembly);
- CLRAE (Local and Regions Authorities Congress of Europe).
Bashkortostan Republic is one of the greatest industrial centers in Russia. It's industrial production volumes let the republic enter stable the ten top among the main economic regions in Russia. Two multi-sectorial complexes predominate here. They are as follows: machinery and oil-gas extracting, oil-and-gas treatment, oil-and-chemical, chemical, microbiological industries, connected in their technological process.
There are more then 150 factories gathered in the machinery complex. It's greatest part is provided for oil-gas extracting and treatment process as well as for chemical, oil-chemical, mining industries. Electric machines, device-making and vehicle production industries are highly developed. Machine-building and pipe-line tools production were put into operation in Sterlitamak, vehicle-production - in Neftekamsk, wood working production - in Uchalyi; metallurgical industry in Byeloretsk. There is a powerful production base, unique equipment and production technologies in industry and science of the defense complex. While converting, highly complicated production with modern equipment and technologies is mastered here. Aircraft-motors, snow-vehicles, machine-motors of new wave, low capacity automatic telephone stations, devices to protect information have been elaborated and improved constantly. The cooperation's and joint ventures with foreign partners are being esablished, large cooperation plans are fulfilled.
The Republic oil refining complex is the second most technically powerful in Europe. Bashkortostan is the first in oil processing in Russia. Annually 20 percent of the whole oil processing in Russia is carried out here. The total capacity of oil processing is over 50 mln. ton a year.
Electric power is an important part of the Republic economy. Annually 25 mlrd. kwatt/hour of electric power is produced here. The total electric power production output lets Bashkortostan enter the first ten top prducers among all energy system in Russia; the electric power shipment values - the first five top.
Bashkortostan is a great center of chemical and petrochemical industry. Soda and synthetic alcohol produced here is the cheapest in this country. The production of plastics, synthetic rubber and others is less expensive here than in Russia on an average.
Bashkortostan has at its disposal benefitial conditions for black metallurgy development. Non-ferrous metallurgy is represented by copper-pyrites ores and gold extracting and concentrating enterprises. For many years the republic has been the important ore base for non-ferrous metallurgy of the Urals region as well as a major supplier of sulphur raw materials to some chemical plants in Russia. Timber industry is also highly developed in the republic. The production value in this branch is nearly 3 million cubic meters of timber annually, approximately 1/3 of it is delivered for processing.
Chemical-pharmaceutical, glass, consumer-goods, food, medical industries and other branches are developed in Bashkortostan Republic as well.
In Bashkortostan Republic the investments to the fixed capital continue to extend and it comprises over 6 percent in 2000. More than 60 percent of all investments are used for houses, buildings and edifices construction.
The great volume of social service buildings erection is supported also by means of the republic and local budgets. Flats, hospitals, polyclinics, schools, clubs are constructed.
According to the results of 1999 in terms of population provision with hospital beds the republic came to the 23-d place; with dwelling construction - to the 3-th place; with pre-school institutions - to the 11-th place.
Three of five Russia latitudinal railways between the East and the West cross Bashkortostan Republic. With the Byelaya, the Kama and the Volga rivers the republic possesses the Ways out to five seas. Air ways and motor roads connect Ufa with many industrial centers of Russia and the CIS countries.